ARM/NEON FFT, transpose, & cache fun.
For various reasons i've had to look into using an FFT to do some image processing - mostly about performance and scalability - and i didn't really want to deal with FFTW or anything too complicated. I couldn't even find a reference to the performance of a typical ARM chip at doing 2D convolutions (at best all I found was FLOP counts which don't mean much to me).
FFTS - New SIMD FFT library
But I was lucky that a new SIMD enabled FFT library 'fastest fft in the south' - ffts from work on a thesis (afaict) has just shown up, and it supports NEON. I don't know how I found it now - because I just tried to search for it now to get a link to it and I couldn't find it again, even knowing the name, hosting site, author ... from my blog stats fft's are searched for a lot, but for some reason google is shit at finding relevant results. Might've been through stackoverflow.
Anyway - it's still in early stages but with a couple of changes from the author I got it to build on the beagleboard-xm.
It seems fast, but I don't have a handle on how fast fft's are on this hardware ... Nor have I yet written the algorithm I need to test using it. Working in the frequency domain always gives me the willies, but at least C supports complex maths directly.
2D ... transpose?
No 2D FFT at the moment, but 2D is just implemented as FFT in one dimension then the other. So for practical purposes this means along the rows then columns. Which means a transpose ...
Knowing the cache penalty I expected from implementing a straight element by element transpose I tried implementing one using tiles. Works fine, and pretty fast for small image sizes, but for 512x512 (complex float) things really start to slow down ... a lot.
I tried various tile sizes and although 16x16 helped it didn't help much ...
Avoid those redundant copies?
It's all down to the cache. That size just seems to be near worst-case in terms of address aliasing between the source and the destination. The only fix is to change the addresses used ... and the only way to do that is to use a tertiary buffer.
One normally avoids 'redundant' copies, but in this case it's akin to a scatter/gather into LDS, and global memory is only ever accessed in full cache lines (ideally - although from measurements that is less important than just doing runs).
So by transposing the data from the source tile into the buffer first, and then just memcpy'ing that out to the target in rows, I gained a nearly
6x speed improvement for the 512x512 complex float case, and the transpose now scales linearly with the image size (it's about 3ms 4ms for two transposes). With the fixed size of the temp buffer, the compiler generated better code too (although the code it generated before was quite poor), although it's the cache issues that totally dominate the performance regardless.
I could always do an in-place transpose with this as well, which could be handy.
I always 'knew' this stuff, but desktop cpu's have such a large cache and performance it usually doesn't matter (much), but last time I had to really deal with it was writing code for my Amiga 1200. And that was some time ago.
Update: Fixed the numbers after actually verifying the code worked - i.e. fixing the bugs. Still very much better.